My purpose of including this post about pre-sedation assessment is because it warrants a provision to check for compliance against the Joint Commission International (JCI) Standard ASC.3 which requires documentation of a pre-sedation assessment and monitoring of the patient during administration of moderate or deep sedation or anesthesia using the Medical Records Review Tool (MMRT) form, similar to the situation when the JCI Standard AOP.1.4. which also examines the documentation in a medical record during a Medical Records Review (MMR) session.
Sedation (JCI, 2011 p.245) at three (3) levels of sedation – minimal sedation (patient can respond to command), moderate sedation (depressed level of consciousness; patient can breathe without assistance, respond to pain, and follow some commands. protective reflexes are maintained), and deep sedation (patient cannot be easily aroused, but can respond after repeated stimulation. respiration may need to be supported), is “the administration of medication to an individual, in any setting, for any purpose, by any route to induce a partial or total loss of sensation for the purpose of conducting an operative or other procedure.” as defined in the Glossary of the JCI Hospital Acceditation Standards For Hospitals, 4th Edition Manual.
So what needs to be checked for compliance against this JCI Standard ASC.3, which states that “Policies and procedures guide the care of patients undergoing moderate and deep sedation.” in the medical record of a patient due for the purpose of conducting an operative or other procedure on the patient.” and specifically its Measurable Element (ME) 3 which requires that “There is a pre-sedation assessment performed that is consistent with organization policy to evaluate risk and appropriateness of the sedation for the patient.?
Such aforesaid policies and procedures of a hospital must define the scope and content of a pre-sedation assessment to guide the care of patients undergoing moderate and deep sedation. A responsible qualified individual competent in (a) techniques of various modes of sedation, (b) appropriate monitoring, (c) response to complications, (d) use of reversal agents, and (e) at least basic life support, conducts a pre-sedation assessment of the patient to ensure the planned sedation and determine the appropriate level of sedation for the patient that is consistent with hospital policy to evaluate risk and appropriateness of the sedation for the patient. Pre-sedation assessment is important in particular for moderate and deep sedation levels because the degrees of sedation occur on a continuum, and a patient may progress from one degree to another, based on the medications administered, route, and dosages.
A pre-sedation assessment will include the following to ensure a patient’s ability to maintain protective reflexes; an independent, continuous patent airway; and the capability to respond to physical stimulation or verbal commands :
a) how planning will occur as I covered in the post Anaesthesia plan in the patient’s medical record (this link will open in a new tab of your current browser window), including the identification of differences between adult and paediatric populations or other special considerations for patients with signiﬁcant underlying medical conditions (e.g., extremes of age; severe cardiac, pulmonary, hepatic, or renal disease; pregnancy; drug or alcohol abuse, uncooperative patients, morbid obesity, potentially difﬁcult airway, sleep apnea);
b) documentation required for the care team to work and to communicate effectively;
c) informed consent must be obtained for all non-emergency procedures and special consent for example when informed consent is obtained moments before a patient will undergo a major, potentially life-threatening or disfiguring procedure;
d) frequency and type of patient-monitoring requirements;
e) special qualifications or skills of staff involved in sedation process as I posted under the post Anesthesia care must be given by a qualified individual (this link will open in a new tab of your current browser window); and
f ) availability and use of specialised equipment.
Recommendations on Pre-Anaesthetic Assessment , one of the six (6) Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) of the Malaysian Society of Anaesthesiologists (MSA) recommends that “A written summary of the pre-anaesthetic assessment, orders or arrangements should be explicitly and legibly documented in the patient’s anaesthetic record”.
Likewise, another MSA CPG – Recommendations for Standards of Monitoring During Anaesthesia and Recovery, makes special mention on sedation and recommends that (i) A patient who is to be given any form of sedation for a procedure should be assessed by a qualified medical practitioner and his medical status noted.”, and (ii) “A written record of the time and dosages of the drugs used must be kept as part of the patients records. This record must also note the monitored values of the patients vital signs( i.e. blood pressure, pulse rate. respiration, and oxygen saturation) .”
Examples of presedation assessment forms for adults and paediatrics with links from this post are as follows :
Adult Sedation Pre-Sedation Assessment Form example (this link will open in a new tab of your current browser window)
Paediatric Sedation Pre-Sedation Assessment Form example (this link will open in a new tab of your current browser window)
It is also possible to find pre-sedation assessment recorded in the anaesthesia record.
Before I close the discussion on pre-sedation assessment in this post, I like to recommend the following based on my experiences:
- a special, separate special pre-sedation medication form or the pre-sedation medication form printed on the reverse side of the anaesthetic record form or elements of the pre-sedation assessment included as part of the anaesthetic record form;
- team members of a MMR session must be briefed about (a) the pre-sedation assessment process compliance check for JCI Standard ASC.3 in the MMRT form, and (b) about the presence of a pre-sedation assessment form in a medical record for patients undergone pre-sedation assessment and monitoring during the administration of moderate or deep sedation;
- a medical record is just not complete if there is no pre-sedation assessment form in a medical record for patients undergone pre-sedation assessment and monitoring during the administration of moderate or deep sedation, so Health Information Management (HIM) / Medical Records (MR) practitioners must ensure a medical record for such patients is completed with a pre-sedation assessment record;
- reporting the presence of a pre-sedation assessment form in a medical record for patients undergone pre-sedation assessment and monitoring during the administration of moderate or deep sedation is not enough just to satisfy the completion of the process of a MMR session but I believe it is beyond just checking for completeness of the medical record and merely to complete the MMRT form;
- team members of a MMR session must be briefed not only to check for a pre-sedation assessment form in a medical record but also its completeness and team members must notify the MMR session team leader of any incompleteness found; and
- the team leader of a MMR session must record such observations of incompleteness found in the pre-sedation assessment form so as to make the MMR session report as value added as possible and to improve the quality improvement activities of the Anaesthesiology Department of the hospital.
Caroline, BR & Mary, TK 2012, Textbook of basic nursing, 10th edn, Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, USA
Children’s Hospital Central California, 2013, Paediatric Sedation Pre-Sedation Assessment Form example, viewed 5 January 2013 < http://www.chccsedation.org/downloads/PreProceduralSP.pdf >
Darthmouth-Hitchcock Medical Centre, Adult Sedation Pre-Sedation Assessment Form example, viewed 5 January 2013 < http://www.dhmcsedation.com/as/downloads/PreAssessmentExample.pdf >
Joint Commission International 2010, Joint Commission International Accreditation Standards For Hospitals, 4th edn, JCI, USA
Malaysian Society of Anaesthesiologists (MSA), 2013, Recommendations on Pre-Anaesthetic Assessment, viewed 5 January 2013 < http://www.acadmed.org.my/view_file.cfm?fileid=222 >
Malaysian Society of Anaesthesiologists (MSA), 2013, Recommendations for Standards of Monitoring During Anaesthesia and Recovery, viewed 5 January 2013 < http://www.acadmed.org.my/view_file.cfm?fileid=180 >
Malaysian Society of Anaesthesiologists (MSA), 2013, Recommendations On Pre-Anaesthetic Assessment, viewed 5 January 2013 < http://www.acadmed.org.my/view_file.cfm?fileid=222 >
Michelle, AG & Mary, JB 2011, Essentials of Health Information Management: Principles and Practices, 2nd edn, Delmar, Cengage Learning, NY, USA
Ronald, DM & Manuel, CP Jr 2011, Basics Of Anesthesia, 6th edn, Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, USA